Data Cheat Sheet: A summary of data ownership in the live events industry

Guide by Julie Knibbe & Marie Cebrian

Photo by Amy Harris/Invision/AP

A study from PwC forecast that the live music industry would be worth $31 billion worldwide by 2022 if it weren’t for the pandemic. In the U.S., the live sector alone accounted for 48% of total music-industry revenues in 2019, outpacing the recorded-music sector. Long story short, the live sector is an industry within the music industry. 

I recently wrote a piece for Cherie Hu’s Water & Music publication, How the touring industry will use data in 2021 — even in a pandemic, providing guidance about how professionals use data in the live sector. During the research phase, I realized how data flows in this sector were even more complex than I thought. Ticketing platforms, promoters, venues, festivals, agents, bookers, and artist managers all collect and use data. On top of that, hybrid virtual events, live streaming and privacy regulations are now reshaping relationships between them: who owns what? Who needs access to what data? I even got lost at some point 🙂 That’s why I summed it all up in a Data Cheat Sheet to help you navigate this live universe within the music industry. 

Since a picture is worth a thousand words, Marie and I designed an illustrated version as well to describe data relationships between players of the live sector. As lines get blurrier between them and the recording industry, it’s a good time to review our basics to understand this ever-changing landscape.

How to read this chart

Ticket sales sit at the very center of this chart. It’s a goal and KPI shared by any player involved in the sector. All parties must define:

  • their own strategies to achieve ticket sales (outlined colored circles) 
  • data they own (colored circles)
  • external KPIs they need to get their job done effectively (outer circles)

Thanks to all the ground work done in the industry, data is now accessible and made actionable by several data tools that I will mention below. For more details regarding how to use these KPIs and tools, read the full guide on Water & Music.

Ticket sales

Incumbent ticketing platforms provide not only primary KPIs about sales, such as:

  • Tickets sold, 
  • Capacity percentage, 
  • Seating chart, 
  • Gross revenue,
  • Time of purchase,
  • Buyers personal information,
  • sometimes ticket transfers. 

but also secondary KPIs regarding the event marketing (see below) 

Tools: Eventbrite, Ticketmaster, Seated,…

Event marketing

Ticketing platforms like Eventbrite and Ticketmaster enable promoters to add pixels to track where sales come from, so that marketers can optimize their digital advertising investments according to which channel shows the best conversion rates. 

The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the event promotion structure. It gave more power to artists and labels, who often act as the promoter as well, through live streaming events. Data collected from virtual events can provide significant leverage when physical shows will happen again (email, D2F stores, advertising…).

KPIs include: 

  • Pre-sale registrations,
  • Ad campaigns performance,
  • Sales channels, 
  • Sales channels conversion rates.

Tools: Audience Republic, Audiencetools, Arenametrix, ….

Touring history

Cherie Hu wrote about this in how booking agents use (and don’t use) data (highly recommended reading). In her words an artist’s touring history is “by far the most crucial kind of data that agents reference in their day-to-day decision-making. 

However, depending on the granularity you require, you may find out that complete touring history (ticket sales, time of sales, sales channels, attendance, fan contacts, artist contracts, fan behavior during the event, …)  is dispatched between at least three players.

For example, while managers and agents “know about tours months in advance of them ever going on sale …  promoters are often the last ones in that chain owing, in the most part, to the bidding processes, despite being the folks with the biggest job to do” said Sammy Andrews, Digital Marketer, in Music Week

Tools: Pollstar, Bandsintown, Songkick, …

Fan behavior during the event

Data collection during live events primarily serves several purposes:

  • Making sure that logistics and operations are running smoothly, and that the event is profitable,
  • Learning more about fan behavior during the show to optimize future shows and to develop targeted marketing campaigns after the show,
  • Complying with sanitary regulations with regards to the COVID-19 pandemic.

KPIs include: 

  • Attendance
  • Time of entry
  • With whom the fan attended
  • Contact tracing (COVID)
  • Seating plan
  • Purchases
  • Merch purchases
  • Time of purchases

Tools: TicketMaster SmartEvent, Aloompa, Appmiral, atVenu, …

Artist fandom and local footprint

Gauging and anticipating demand for shows remains a challenge. Understanding where fans are and what makes them willing to see a show can go a long way to anticipate and build demand.

KPIs include:

  • Facebook, Instagram fans per city
  • DSP Streams & listeners per city
  • Local airplay

but also secondary KPIs such as:

  • Bandsintown trackers
  • Local charts
  • Local playlists

A side note about live streaming: the meaning of ‘local’ marketing takes a different shape online: In Diana Gremore’s words, Business Intelligence Analyst at Paradigm Talent Agency, “instead of events being geographically local, they are local to online communities.”

Tools: Social networks analytics, Soundcharts, Chartmetric, Google Trends, ..

About data sharing and ownerships

In the chart, arrows represent data that is potentially shared. Data that is actually being shared depends on the promoter’s relationship and contract with the ticketing company, and on the artist management / agent relationship and contract with the promoter.

It is imperative that data collection be organized carefully, as exchanging data between third parties is under GDPR/CIAA regulations to protect privacy. Artists and their teams need to make sure that they have the right to use the data collected in the contracts they form with their partners, at least for their own marketing purposes. Partners also need to make sure they comply with data protection laws, so that the artist can be legally granted access that they need.

The Music Managers Forum (MMF) published a Fan Data Guide, which is a great support to understand where fan data flows from ticket sales to event attendance. They also built a data checklist to highlight items you should be aware of when dealing with promoters as an artist or a manager.

Travis Scott’s literally Astronomical event on Fortnite: What music managers can learn from THE SCOTTS release

Travis Scott Fortnite

“Ooops, I did it again” 

A bit more than a year after Marshmello’s previous set in Fortnite, Travis Scott and Epic Games set a new record with the ‘Astronomical’ 3-day residency, with about 12 million players tuned into the experience the very first night, beating Marshmello’s 10.7 million attendance in early 2019. In total, 27.7 million players watched the event, and that doesn’t even account for Youtube or Twitch views later on. It’s important to note that it is also a record for Fortnite that peaks at 7.6 million players on a regular non-eventful day.

It’s not the first time the music and gaming industries fool around together. For instance, Solomun appeared as the primary DJ for the GTA Online Protagonist’s Nightclub and stayed resident from 24 July to 31 July 2018. The trend is picking up everywhere, even more so now that Covid-19 put half the world on a stay-home policy. Major festivals and concerts are struggling with cancellations and sanitary restrictions. Live streamed events are booming and the music industry is resilient enough to push innovation forward in these difficult times. A virtual music festival is happening inside Minecraft this month

Why Astronomical worked so well? 

Music & Virtual Reality had a complicated history so far. MelodyVR and other VR companies are bringing orchestras to the living room. However, no music & VR experience has reached any mainstream audience so far. Trying to replicate a concert experience in a living room is bound to be disappointing. Just because it’s trying too hard to replicate something that already exists. The social dimension of going to a show is very strong, people go to concerts to live the moment with the band and other fans. No headset can make you feel the heat of being surrounded by other human beings vibrating to the same beat alongside you. VR suffers from the comparison that users can hardly prevent themselves from doing.

What Fortnite, Marshmello and Travis Scott successfully did is to actually create a new experience that fans wouldn’t compare with anything else: leverage an existing virtual universe, use its users habits and codes, and leverage them to create a unique artist/fan experience.

On top of building an amazing user experience, the move is also smart because one doesn’t have to create a whole new virtual universe, it is already there in the game, as well as the audience. Fans don’t have to get new equipment to benefit from the show. It is original, unique and with a seamless experience for those already in the game. As a product designer, I can only applaud. What about those who don’t play?

A success beyond gaming platforms

Cherry on the cake, non-gamers were not left behind. The virtual event can be broadcast live on Youtube, Twitch and/or Instagram; which makes for a fully integrated experience across all networks. There is no FOMO for non-gamers since fans can see what’s happening. Youtube and Twitch in this case supplement the experience, enabling replays on other devices later on. Travis Scott’ team leveraged all platforms and tailored content for each accurately: Fortnite for the live immersive show, Youtube and Twitch for replays, and Instagram for the community.

The Astronomical event today has almost 30 million views on Youtube, surpassing attendance on Fortnite. Travis Scott’s Youtube channel gained 2 million subscribers, as well as his Instagram page. The only remaining question is whether the virtual, video experience also promoted the song well and if fans enjoyed the audio art as well. Spotify figures seem to point in that direction, as monthly listeners reached an all time high at 44 million (data courtesy of Soundcharts). 

Key takeaways

IRL, what can you do (without Travis Scott’s marketing budget)? Here are a few takeaways you can bring home when thinking about your next campaign:

  • Go where they go: leverage existing audiences and fit their needs and habits,
  • Tailor the experience for the platform you will work on: don’t duplicate content and think specifically about how to adapt for one given platform.
  • Think 360 across all networks: fans use several social networks and streaming platforms, think about their experience from start to finish. 

PS:  I won my first game on Fortnite last night. Couldn’t resist.